The Bactra Review Authority,
Liberty and Automatic Machinery in Early Modern Europe
There is a strong argument that they did not in Joseph Needham, Wang Ling, and
Derek J. de Solla Price, Heavenly Clockwork: The Great Astronomical
Clocks of Medieval China (2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, 1986;
first ed., 1960). For some reason, this argument is very unpopular among
European historians of technology.